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How to fill out the Export Invoice correctly?

With the appreciation of the dollar, the most common foreign currency in international transactions, export processes have been growing significantly in Brazil.

For this type of operation, the exporting company needs to formalize the sale of the product by issuing some specific documents, one of the most important being the export invoice (nota fiscal). In order for it to be issued correctly, it is necessary to pay attention to some parameters and technical details, and that is what we are going to deal with in this article. 

What is the Export Invoice (nota fiscal) and what is it used for?

The export invoice is the national document that effects the departure of the Brazilian product from the country, it is the formalization of the sale of national products to the foreign market. 

This document serves to liquidate the goods in the company's stock, formalizing its transfer to the buyer in the country of destination.

What is the export invoice base?

The export invoice is based on its commercial negotiation with the buyer, from the indication of responsibility for international transport to the amount effectively owed for the products. 

The document that precedes the note is the Commercial Invoice, that is, the international commercial invoice, and it is in this document that export expenses and the value of the products in foreign currency are described. 

Depending on the commercial negotiation, the Incoterm used will indicate which of the companies will be responsible for contracting and paying for the services necessary to export the goods.

For example: in an export with Incoterm CIP, the exporter will be responsible for delivering the cargo at the customs terminal of destination, that is, the export clearance, international freight and insurance are borne by the exporter, and he must include these expenses in the value of the product at the time of its price formation.

Which values ​​appear on the Export Invoice?

Two parameters will dictate the values ​​highlighted in the export invoice: the commercial negotiation (Incoterm) and the dollar rate on the day the invoice is issued. 

The Incoterms that determine the contracting of international freight and insurance on behalf of the exporter indirectly demand the inclusion of these expenses in specific fields of the export invoice, that is, these two expenses must be included in the Commercial Invoice how much invoice.

As the basis of the invoice is a commercial negotiation made in foreign currency, it is necessary to convert the value by Real (R$). According to what the customs legislation regulates, the exchange rate to be used in this conversion is the PTAX of purchase in force on the last business day immediately prior to the issuance of the invoice.

An export invoice referring to a Commercial Invoice in the amount of USD 100.00 will have different values ​​in reais depending on the date of issue.

What is the relationship between export invoice and Single Export Declaration (DUE)?

The export invoice is the national document that carries out the sale of products to the international market, mainly with SEFAZ. The Single Export Declaration (DUE) has a very similar objective, but at the Federal level, specifically the Federal Revenue Service of Brazil (RFB).

The DUE is a relatively new document that was created to replace the RE (Export Registration), the DE (Export Declaration) and the DSE (Simplified Export Declaration), speeding up the international sales process.

The two documents are interconnected and the main information of one is also included in the other, such as the identification key of the invoice.

Precautions when Issuing the Export Invoice

As the export invoice and the DUE are interlinked, it is necessary to take great care at the time of issuance to avoid problems at the time of customs clearance of the goods. 

Export invoices issued with wrong CFOP, for example, can prevent the registration of the DUE for the simple fact of not characterizing the operation as described in the auxiliary documentation. Imagine that you wrongly issued an invoice with CFOP 7101 (Production Sale of the establishment) and you are going to register an indirect export DUE: the IRS system will not approve the registration.

The correct CFOP would be 7501 (Export of goods received for specific export purposes), and Siscomex will only allow the registration of the DUE through the linking of the sales invoice issued by the manufacturer of the goods.

Another very important piece of information is the product's unit of measure. There are two to be considered in foreign trade operations: traded unit and statistical unit. The NCM of the product determines them, and the two are not always the same.

For example: NCM 8438.90.00 has a statistical unit in KG, but since it is a part, it is usually traded in a unit. It means that the issuer of the documentation will need to adapt the two measures, under penalty of not being able to issue the DUE and carry out the operation.

It is also necessary to include some remarks in the “Additional Information” field of the note. One of them is the legislation corresponding to the non-levy of IPI and ICMS taxes because it is an export; another is the entry invoice number referring to the products being exported, especially in cases of indirect export.

Exports are an ally of Brazilian companies that want to leverage their earnings by adding the international market to their range of customers, but for the operation to be carried out smoothly, it is necessary to pay attention to some details. Can we help them in this operation, how about we talk a little more about it? Contact us!

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